Paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces inside bone. There are four named sinuses and these are the maxillary, frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses. These sinuses are named after the bones in which they are located. The paranasal sinuses open into the nasal cavity and therefore are lined with a mucus membrane. You can find three primary functions of the sinuses. First, they decrease the weight of the skull. Second, they produce mucus. And third, they also affect the high quality of out voice by acting as resonating chambers. The sinuses are involved in many upper respiratory tract infections.
Para-nasal sinuses are air-filled areas within bone. There are four named sinuses and these are the maxillary, frontal, ethmoidal, and sphenoidal sinuses. These types of sinuses are named after the bones in which they are located. The paranasal sinuses open into the nasal cavity and are lined with a mucus membrane layer. There are three primary functions from the sinuses. First, they decrease the weight of the skull. Second, they produce mucus. And third, they also impact the quality of out voice simply by acting as resonating chambers. The sinuses are involved in many upper respiratory tract infections.
Sinusitis is an inflammation from the mucous membrane of any sinus, especially of one or more paranasal sinuses. It often follows an upper respiratory infection or cold, or an exacerbation of allergic rhinitis. It may result from inflammation due to allergies or even polyps that obstruct a nose opening into a nasal cavity.
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The inflammation can also be caused by viral infections like the common cold. The virus-like infection can cause mucous membranes to become inflamed, swell, and produce extra mucus. As a result, the sinus starting into the nasal cavity can be partly or completely blocked.
When mucus accumulates within the sinus, it can provide an excellent medium for bacterial development, thus, it can promote the development of a bacterial infection. The upsurge of nasal mucus and the inflammation of mucus walls due to the infection produce pain. Various other conditions that can obstruct the normal flow of sinus secretions include unusual structure of the nose, enlarged, adenoids, diving and swimming, tooth infections, trauma to the nose, and the pressure of foreign objects.
If their openings into the nasal passages are very clear, the infections resolve immediately. However , if the drainage is obstructed due to certain conditions like deviated nasal septum, nasal polyps or tumors, nose infection may persist as a supplementary infection or progress to an severe suppurative process, causing purulent discharge.
Four types of sinusitis have been recognized – acute, subacute, chronic, plus allergic sinusitis. Acute sinusitis describes rapid-onset infection in one or more from the paranasal sinuses that resolves along with treatment. Subacute sinusitis is a chronic purulent nasal discharge despite treatment with symptoms lasting for less than three months. Chronic sinusitis occurs with episodes of prolonged inflammation and with recurring or inadequate treatment of acute bacterial infections. An irreversible damage to the mucosa may also occur. The symptoms last for longer for three months. Bacterial organisms like Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, plus Moraxella catarrhalis are the most commonly associated organisms with sinusitis. Less common organisms include Streptococcus pyogenes, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and aspergillus fumigatus (fungi). Fungal infections may occur in immuno-suppressed patients.
The symptoms of sinus infection differ from people to people and rely on the age of the person. In adults, most bacterial infections involve the maxillary and anterior ethmoidal sinuses. Symptoms may include face pain or pressure over the impacted area, fatigue, facial pain, sinus obstruction, purulent nasal discharge, fever, headache, ear pain, and a feeling of fullness. Other symptoms might also include dental pain, diminished sense of smell, sore throat, a periorbital edema in the morning, and a cough that becomes worse when the patient is in supine position. Acute sinusitis can be difficult to tell apart from an upper respiratory illness or allergic rhinitis. If less than two symptoms are present, then acute bacterial sinusitis is ruled out. Nevertheless , the presence of four or more symptoms suggests acute bacterial sinusitis.