The particular in-depth study of Art associated with Translation demands more attention not really because it paves way for global conversation and offers an excellent opportunity to undergo socio-cultural survey of various languages and their own literatures but also gives an opportunity to set up some kind of relevance it has in the research and area of Literary Criticism. Interpretation Studies can very safely end up being included as an important genre within the domain of Literary Criticism given that translation is an art prompting to peep into the diversified lingual, social and literary content of a resource language and thus highlighting/appreciating the essence and niceties of the literature of that particular translated language. In the context of Indian Studies, keeping because the multilingual and pluristic cultural nature of our country, translation posseses an important role to play. It is through translation that we can look into the rich history of India as one integrated device and feel proud of our social legacy. The relevance of interpretation as multifaceted and a multidimensional action and its international importance as a socio-cultural bridge between countries has grown over the years. In the present day circumstances when factors are fast moving ahead globally, not only countries and societies need to connect to each other closely, but individuals too need to have contact with members of various other communities/societies that are spread over different parts of the country/world. In order to cater to these needs translation has become an important activity that satisfies individual, societal and national needs.
It goes without saying that the significance and relevance of translation within our daily life is multidimensional and extensive. It is through translation we know regarding all the developments in communication and technology and keep abreast of the latest discoveries in the various fields of knowledge, and have access through translation to the materials of several languages and to the different events happening in the world. India has had close links with ancient civilisations such as Greek, Egyptian and Chinese language. This interactive relationship would have already been impossible without the knowledge of the various dialects spoken by the different communities plus nations. This is how human beings realised the importance of translation long ago. Needless to mentiuon here that the relevance and importance of translation has increased greatly in today’s fast changing world. Today with the growing zest for knowledge in human minds there is a great need of translation in the fields of schooling, science and technology, mass communication, trade and business, literature, religious beliefs, tourism, etc .
Generally, translation turns a text associated with source language(SL) into a correct and understandable version of target language(TL)without losing the suggestion of the first. Many people think that being bilingual is that is needed to be a translator. Which is not true. Being bilingual is an important prerequisite, no doubt, but translation skills are built and developed on the basis of one’s personal long drawn-out communicative and writing experiences in both the languages. In fact translation is a process based on the theory of extracting the meaning of a text from its present form and reproduce that with different form of a second language.
Conventionally, it is suggested that translators need to meet three requirements, namely: 1) Familiarity with the source language, 2) Understanding of the target language, and 3) Familiarity with the subject matter to perform the job effectively. Based on this concept, the ¨¹bersetzungsprogramm discovers the meaning behind the forms in the source language (SL) will not his best to reproduce the same which means in the target language (TL) utilizing the TL forms and structures towards the best of his knowledge. Naturally plus supposedly what changes is the form and the code and what should stay unchanged is the meaning and the information (Larson, 1984). Therefore , one may detect the most common definition of translation, i. e., the selection of the nearest equivalent for a language unit in the SL within a target language.
Computers are already used to translate one language directly into another, but humans are still mixed up in process either through pre-writing or post-editing. There is no way that a computer can ever be able to translate languages the way in which a human being could since language uses metaphor/imagery to convey a particular meaning. Translating is more than simply looking up a few phrases in a dictionary. A quality translation requires a thorough knowledge of both the source vocabulary and the target language.
Translation Theory, Practice and Process
Successful interpretation is indicative of how closely it lives up to the expectations as: recreating exactly as for as possible the meaning from the source text, using natural types of the receptor/target language in such a way being appropriate to the kind of text getting translated and expressing all facets of the meaning closely and readily easy to understand to the intended audience/reader. Technically, translation is a process to abstract the meaning of a text from its current types and reproduce that meaning in different forms of another language. Translation has now been recognised as an independent industry of study. The translator can be said to be the focal element in the translation. The writer/author becomes the particular centre, for whatever he creates will be final, and no two translators translate a text in the same way. It really is genegally believed that a writer to know the intricacies of the TL by which he may wish to translate. As a matter of fact, it is not the writer of the SL textual content who asks someone to translate their works into the TL; it is primarily the interest of the individual translator which prompts him to translate a function into his mother tongue. A successful translator is not a mechanical translator of the text but is creative as well. We may say that he is a co-creator of the TL text.. In fact , for the translator knowledge of two or more languages is vital. This involves not only a working knowledge of two different languages but also the knowledge associated with two linguistic systems as also their literature and culture. This kind of translators have been seen to possess different qualities which we shall quickly discuss later.
Linguiustically, translation consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical framework, communication situation, and cultural framework of the source language and its textual content, analyzing it in order to determine the meaning, and then reconstructing the same which means using the lexicon and grammatical framework which are appropriate in the target language and its cultural context. The process of interpretation starts with the comprehension of the supply text closely and after discovering this is of the text, translator re-expresses this is he has drawn out into the receptor/target language in such a way that there is minimal loss within the transformation of meaning into the translated language. This entire process could be graphed as under: –
Summary of the translation task
In practice, there is always considerable variation in the types of translations produced by various translators of a specific text. This is because translation is essentially a skill and not Science. So many factors including proficiency in language, cultural background, writing flair etc . determine the standard of translation and it is because of that no two translations seem to be alike otherwise averse.
Accommodation in Translation
Interpretation turns a communication in one language into a correct and understandable edition of that communication in another language. Sometimes a translator has to consider certain liberties with the original textual content in order to re-create the mood plus style of the original. This, in other words is called ‘accommodation. ‘ This has three measurements: cultural accommodation; collocation accommodation; ideological accommodation; and aesthetic accommodation. Lodging is considered a synonym of adaptation which means changes are made so the target text produced is in line with all the spirit of the original. Translation is not really merely linguistic conversion or change between languages but it involves lodging in scope of culture, national politics, aesthetics, and many other factors. Accommodation is also translation, a free, rather than literal, kind of translation. Moreover, it is inevitable used if the translation is to maintain the source message’s essence, impact, and effect. There is an interesting saying: A interpretation is like a woman: if it is faithful, it is not beautiful; if it is beautiful, it is not devoted. That is to say if you want to be faithful with all the text while translating you are bound to lose the beauty of the translated text and if you try to maintain the beauty of the translated text you are sure to become unfaithful with the original text.. Faithfulness was once considered the iron rule in translation process but over the years when we take a closer look, accommodation, or adaptation, is found in most published translations and it has become a necessity too since keeping in view the adverse cultural/lingual/geographical/historical/political diversifications and backgrounds of various languages and their literatures, accommodation, if not compromising, is almost obligatory. Accommodation, too, has to be carried out very properly, more especially when it comes to translating beautifully constructed wording or any such text which is extremely immotive and artistic in nature. For example translating poetry has never been therefore simple. Robert Frost once stated, “Poetry is what gets lost within translation. ” This is a sufficient proof of the difficulty involved in translation of poetry. Because poetry is fundamentally beneficial for its aesthetic value, therefore , visual accommodation becomes an art instead of a fundamental requirement. A good poetry translator with a measure of accommodation and adequate knowledge of aesthetic traditions of different cultures plus languages, can be better appreciated with the target reader and can achieve the required effect.
Qualities of a good Translator
A good translator should have adequate understanding of the SL(source language) from which he is translating into the TL which is generally his mother toungue/target language. In order to produce an accurate translation of the SL text he should have command on the grammatical, syntactic, semantic and practical features of the SL. In addition to this it is crucial that he is well-conversant with the socio-cultural contexts of both the SL as well as the TL. A good translator should be the author’s mouthpiece in a way that he knows and comprehends fully whatever the original writer has said in his text. One of the generally accepted characteristics of a good interpretation is that it should resemble the original text or come as close to the SL text as possible. It should appear like the original in the TL translation within the typical social and cultural settings which includes minor accommodation, if necessary, of course.
Generally it is also believed that the job of the translator is a mechanical one-a simple rendering of the SL text right into a TL text. But it is not therefore. The translator has to perform a really difficult task. It is in a way more difficult and complicated than that of the original article writer. A creative writer composes or writing instruments down his thoughts without any to the outside compulsion. A translator has to restrict himself not only to the SL textual content but a host of other factors also intervene in the process of translating the TL.
A good translator must have an adequate knowledge of the subject or area to which the SL text relates so that the translator is able to capture the spirit from the SL text. If he does not have an in-depth knowledge, he may not be able to produce an accurate translation suitable for its intended purpose. For example , if you need to translate the Bible or the Gita or any other religious text, you’ll want adequate knowledge of those religious and theological works.
A good translator needs to be careful of the choices that he makes in using the TL.
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He should translate in the style, which is appropriate for the target audience. The style must be such that it appears to be natural and spontaneous to the TK readers. The translation in the TL should not sound peculiar.
A translator does need certain tools to help him out in occasions of difficulty. These tools can be by means of good monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, encyclopedias, e-dictionaries, glossaries of specialized and standard works, etc . related to the SL text.
A good translator must have patience and should not be in a rush to rush through while translation any text. He should not be reluctant in discussing with others the problems that he may come across. Morever, this individual should not shy away from conducting micro-research in order to arrive at proper and apt equivalents.
In short, a good translator should be a competent and proficient bilingual, acquainted with the subject/area of the SL text chosen for translation. He should never try to insert his own ideas or personal impressions in the TL text. His objective should be to convey the information and the intent of the SL textual content as exactly as possible into the TL text. The job of a translator is very rewarding and intellectually stimulating
Lastly, a few words(based upon my close up understanding about translation study and activity) for up-coming translators and translation-lovers. To translate from one vocabulary into another has never been an easy practice. It is an exercise both painstaking and cumbersome and only those who have engaged themselves with translation work can realize the complex character of this Artwork. I have been associated with translation work for over three decades translating from English, a lot more especially, from Kashmiri/Urdu into Hindi and back.
1-A good translator ought to be a good writer.
2-You needn’t translate everything that has been written, you need to translate the best only.
4-A great translator adjusts/accommodates and not compromises with all the original text.
5-Translators are like ambassadors representing and exchanging the best of the literary world.
5-Art of interpretation is as old as makind, on the web translate your thought before you talk it out? Some more suggestions:
1-Try to get into the mind of the writer.
2-Check your translation twice or might be thrice before finalizing the script. Put the original passage “aside” plus listen to/read your translation together with your ear “tuned in”, as if it was a passage originally composed in the TL.
3-If your materials is highly technical, with vocabulary which is distinctive to a discipline, it is important the fact that translator has at least some background or experience of that discipline. An excellent translator of poetry and crisis may be a bad choice for a chemical substance engineering or biotechnology text.
4-If you have a native speaker of your target language handy, particularly one who knows the subject, that person could be as helpful as your teacher for final script-review. Take his assistance without fail.